Cluster A Personality disorders

Considered to be the "odd or eccentric" personality disorders. The three disorders that fall under this would be the Paranoid personality disorder, Schizoid personality disorder and Schizotypal personality disorder. Tend to have symptoms of Schizophrenia, without actually having Schizophrenia.

Paranoid Personality Disorder:

Paranoia characterized by a persuasive and long standing mistrust and suspicion of others, even if there is no reason to be suspicious of the other person.

Criteria for Diagnosis:

  • Certain thinking and personality traits that persist from adolescent to adult years
  • Should not be considered if this patient is also exhibiting [[#|symptoms of Schizophrenia]] or a Mood Disorder with other Psychotic Features during the time PPD is shown.
  • Has trouble in and keeping relationships
  • hypersensitive to environment
  • More common in men than in women
  • Display signs of aggressiveness and irritability

Differential Diagnosis

  • Usually Interpreted as a low level of [[#|Schizophrenia]]
  • Some drugs can cause Paranoia to the Patient


  • Usually combined with Schizophrenia or Delusional Disorder
  • Increased risk of [[#|Major Depressive Disorder]], Agoraphobia and Schizophrenia


  • It is hard for a person with PPD to trust a therapist to prescribe medication
  • Medications can be used such as anti-anxiety medications, SSRI's and Antipsychotic drugs can all help, but will not completely cure the disorder
  • Psychotherapy can also be used, it is the best type of treatment for the disorder
  • Concern that other people have hidden motives
  • Expectation that they will be exploited by others
  • Inability to work with others
  • Poor self image
  • Social isolation
  • Detachment
  • Hostility
  • Have doubts of other people's trust and loyalty
  • Excessive and irrational suspicion
  • Envy
Pervasive distrust and suspicion of others such that the motives are interpreted as malecolent, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four or more of the following:
  • suspects without sufficient basis that others are out to get them
  • preoccupied with unjustified doubts about loyalty
  • reluctant to confide in others
  • reads benign remarks as threatening
  • bears grudges
  • Unforgiving of insults
  • Recurrent suspicious of spouse

If left untreated...causes isolation and potential for violence Lemongrab shows symptoms of Paranoid Schizophrenia

Case [[#|Study]] for Paranoid Personality Disorder - Paranoid Patient

Schizotypal Personality Disorder:

Nickname: Lone Wolf, Forever Alone
Background/ Treatment
Schizo is a Greek prefix meaning split. This disease is classified as a mental disease described in the DSM IV in Axis 2. It can be caused by numerous things and is diagnosed when one displays at least five of the symptoms listed below. Typically occurs at the beginning of adulthood. It can be subcatagorized into insipid schizotypal and timorous schizotypal, which define the levels of aggression. This disease is also know as the following: borderline schizophrenia, latent schizophrenia, latent schizophrenic reaction, prepsychotic schizophrenia, prodromal schizophrenia, pseudoneurotic schizophrenia, and pseudopsychopathic schizophrenic. While schizotypal is similar to schizophrenia it has some distinct differences. For example, while in schizophrenia, people lose all contact with reality and can not tell the difference between reality and their distorted view, schizotypals have brief periods of these symptoms. Schizotypal is treated commonly though medication as well as extensive therapy. The treatment has around a 25% success rate.

    • It's believed to have stemmed from the affected person's original family.
    • Genetics.
    • Chemical imbalance of brain.
    • Poor peer relationships, social anxiety, underachievement in school, and hypersensitivity.
    • Regularly humiliated by parents, siblings, or peers.

DMV Symptoms
    • Ideas of reference
    • Excessive superstitions
    • Magical thinking
    • Unusual perceptual experiences (i.e. bodily illusions)
    • Odd thinking and speech
    • Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation
    • Inappropriate emotional responses
    • Behavior or appearance that's odd or eccentric
    • Lack of close friends outside immediate family
    • Inability to form close relationships
    • Excessive social anxiety that doesn't diminish with time and is commonly associated with paranoid fears rather than judgments about self

Other Symptoms
    • Belief in special powers such as telepathy, or a sixth sense such as ESP (extrasensory perception)
    • Incorrect interpretation of events, which includes the feeling that external events relate personally to oneself

Charlie Sheen: an excellent example of a schizotype

Charlie Sheen is known for:
- Behavior and appearance that is odd, eccentric, and peculiar
- Odd beliefs or "magical thinking" influencing his behavior and that are inconsistent with cultural norms
- Vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, over-elaborate or stereotyped thinking, manifested by odd speech or in other ways, without gross incoherence
- Inappropriate emotional responses
- Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation
- Poor rapport with others and a lack of close friends or confidants outside most of immediate family

Case Study for Schizotypal Personality Disorder - Schizotypal Patient

A Fictional Series On a Pair of Schizotypal DnD Players

Schizoid Personality Disorder:

Causes: Include a combination of biological/genetic, social, and psychological factors.
    • Evidence suggests more cases occur in families with a history of schizophrenia
    • Neglectful or unloving parenting also may play a role
    • A person with schizoid personality disorder may have had a parent who was cold or unresponsive to emotional needs, or might have grown up in a foster home where love was almost non existent.
    • The families of the person may be reserved or impersonal.
    • The parents may have not shown a lot of affection towards the individual, especially when they were a younger child.
    • Children of parents who have schizoid personality disorder are more likely to have it.

Symptoms: A patient must be 18 years of age before being diagnosed. This is common with all personality disorders. Also, schizoid personality disorder is more prevalent in males. Overall, symptoms seem to fade with age, with many patients age 40-50 experiencing few symptoms.
    • Appears to be aloof or detached
    • Avoids social engagement with family and community
    • Does not enjoy to spend time with anyone, even family
    • Does not have any close relationships
    • Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities
    • Almost always chooses solitary activities
    • Does not show emotional responses to either positive or negative comments
    • Did not develop adequate communication skills
    • Feels misunderstood by the people around them, almost "invisible"
    • May avoid sexual or intimate relationships with other individuals
    • Praise and or criticism is disregarded

    • Psychotherapy: This is the best form of treatment, a warm and friendly is created where a patient feels as though they can open up. Normally patients report not being able to "fit in" so it is the job of the psychologist to create a friendly environment for them. However, this form of treatment is only successful in the short term. Short term therapy is more focused on current problems and stresses, and can be used to alleviate these problems. Therefore, treatment is mostly solution-based.
    • Medication: Can be used for extreme situations of psychosis. During extreme stress, patients undergo hallucinations which the medication can control. These drugs are often anti-psychotics. However, medication is not commonly used for Schizoid patients, and is only used if another Axis I disorder is present. This could include depression of suicidal thoughts. A medication will help alleviate these problems, but should not be used in the long term. Medication could also hinder the benefits of psychotherapy.
    • Self Help: The patient can join a group of other schizoid patients. This group will help the patient by encouraging social interaction and may help eliminate fear of social situations.
    • Psychosis: Any severe form of a mental disorder.
    • Psychotherapy: The treatment of psychological disorders using techniques such as psychoanalysis, group therapy, or behavioral therapy.