• Denial: Inability to face reality or admit an obvious truth
    • Refusal to admit/recognize that something is occurring
    • i.e. alcoholic deny they have a problem
  • Repression: Keeping information out of conscious awareness
    • This repressed info/memories influence our behavior
    • Memories of child abuse repressed → difficulty forming relationships
  • Suppression: Consciously forcing unwanted info out of our awareness
    • Removal of anxiety-provoking memories
  • Displacement: Taking out frustrations, feelings, or impulses on people or objects that are less threatening
    • In order to avoid expressing our emotions in a way that can lead to negative consequences, we choose to express our emotions on people/objects that do not pose a threat
    • i.e. instead of getting angry at a boss and getting fired, expressing our anger towards the children
  • Sublimation: Acting out unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviors into a more acceptable form
    • If we feel an emotion but social norms do not allow us to act on these emotions, we will vent it out through a socially accepted method
    • i.e. feeling extreme anger, take up kick-boxing
  • Projection: Taking our own unacceptable qualities/feelings and putting them on other people
    • We convince ourselves that we are not the originator of the emotion in order to reduce our anxiety and convince ourselves that we aren’t doing anything wrong
    • i.e. if we dislike someone, we convince ourselves that that someone doesn’t like us
  • Reaction Formation: Taking up the opposite feeling, impulse, or behavior
    • In order to hide their true feelings, people behave in the complete opposite way
    • i.e. if we are talking to someone we strongly dislike, we will act in an excessively friendly way to them