Intelligence
  • Achievement Tests (AP Exams)
    • Standardized test designed to measure an individual’s level of knowledge in a particular area
    • Focuses specifically on how much a person knows about a specific topic or area
  • Aptitude Tests (SAT’s, IQ tests)
    • Aptitude - a person’s capacity to learn
    • A test designed to predict learning capacity for a particular area or particular skills
    • SAT and ACT - designed to predict how well one will perform in college
  • Reliability
    • The extent to which a test or other instrument is consistent in its measures
    • If a test is taken over and over again, and little variance in scores, it is reliable
    • If a test is not reliable, answers can not be found
  • Validity
    • Shows if a test indeed measures what it is intended to measure
    • Tests that are valid are also reliable
    • However a test can be reliable but not valid
  • Factor Analysis
    • Type of statistical procedure that is conducted to identify clusters or groups of related items (called factors)
    • Can be performed to see what types of questions one does best/worst on
  • “G” Factor (Spearman)
    • “g” is a statistical term that refers to the general intelligence factor that underlies all intelligent activity
    • Concept was put forward by Spearman in the early 20th century after comparing the scores of grade school students for score correlations
      • Individuals routinely scored within the same ranges across the subjects
      • This correlation led him to the conclusion that each individual possesses a basic ability (intelligence) level
  • Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
    • States that intelligence exists in a number of sensory modalities rather than as a single ability (“g” factor)
    • Eight “modalities” or intelligences
      • Musical - Rhythmic
      • Visual - Spatial
      • Verbal - Linguistic
      • Logical - Mathematical
      • Bodily - Kinesthetic
      • Interpersonal
      • Intrapersonal
      • Naturalistic
    • Explains prodigies and savants - Incredible talents in some areas, while being average or below average in other skill and ability areas
    • Faced criticism for being too specific - Some intelligences are skills and not innate intelligences (i.e. Musical - Rhythmic)
  • Emotional Intelligence
    • Understanding of how words, actions, facial, expressions and body language affect interactions and relationships between people
    • People who are very intelligent but awkward/inappropriate in social situations show low emotional intelligence