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Definition: Memory is an indication that learning has persisted over time. It is the ability for people to store and retrieve information. For example, memory can include the ability to remember a math equation, your friend's birthday, or vocabulary words for an English exam.



Flashbulb Memory
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http://www.all-about-psychology.com/flash-bulb-memory.html













Definition: Flashbulb memory is an extremely vivid "snapshot" of a highly emotional moment. Flashbulb memory is usually clear, strong, and persistent.

Stages of Memory

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http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/introduction-to-psychology/section_12_01.html
















Sensory Memory: the initial recording of sensory information. The majority of this memory is lost. Lasts for 1/4 of a second.


Short Term Memory (Working Memory): Memory holding a few items (7 plus or minus 2) that lasts for less than 1/2 of a minute.


Rehearsal: Repetition. This is required for information to be stored into long term memory.


Encoding: The process of placing information into long term memory. Information may be effortlessly processed or require effortful processing.

  • Automatic Processing: processing information with consious awareness or effort.
  • Effortful Processing: conscious commitment of information into long term memory. For example, memorizing a fact from a textbook through rehearsal.

Long Term Memory: Unlimited capacity. However, some information can be lost as time goes on.



Test Your Short Term Memory



Stare at this image for two seconds.

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http://www.exploratorium.edu/memory/dont_forget/playing_games_2.html#check














Look Away. Write as many objects down as you can remember. How many objects can you name?

Try another one!

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http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/puzmatch3.html










Another Short Term Memory Test








Memory Effects


Next in Line Effect: Failure of proper encoding due to individual's preoccupation of what to say or due when he or she is called on.

Spacing Effect: Rehearsal spread over time (distributed studying) is more effective than rehearsal focused into a short amount of time (cramming).

Serial Position Effect: Encoding is more effective with information at the beginning and the end. Memory of information in the middle of a list is worst.


More About Encoding


Semantic Encoding: Encoding based on meaning.

Visual Encoding: Encoding through the aid of mental pictures.

Acoustic Encoding: Encoding through the aid of sounds.

Method of Loci: Making connections between information that needs to be encoded and a familiar setting.

Chunking: Forming groups or units within information to aid in encoding.
  • Acronyms

Hierarchy: Complicated information broken down into and subdivided into categories and subcategories.



Duration of Memories


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http://civil3d.wordpress.com/2011/09/14/how-to-do-anything-well/



Sensory Memory -------------> Working Memory ------------------> Long Term Memory


Sensory: Iconic (vision): lasts for 0.5 Seconds
Echoic (sound): lasts for 3-4 seconds
Hepatic (feel) : less than 1 second

Working Memory (Short Term): duration of 20 seconds

Long Term Memory: Unlimited capacity but some information may be lost as time passes.



Implicit vs Explicit Memories



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http://www.katiesbookblog.com/2012/12/discussion-re-reading-why-you-should.html
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http://vector.me/browse/174575/bicycle_clip_art




Explicit Memory: facts and experiences (Capital of Mexico). Damage to the Hippocampus impairs our Explicit Memory.

Implicit Memory: actions or skills (how to ride a bike). Damage to the Cerebellum affects our Implicit Memory.



The R's of Memory


Retrieval: getting information out of storage.

Recognition: Identify an item from a list. Multiple Choice.

Recall: retrieving information without choices. Fill in the Blank.

Relearning: learning material for the second time.

Retrieval Cues: Associations that aid in the retrieval of memory.
  • Priming: activating a strand or "instance" that leads to the memory of interest.
  • Context Effects: retrieving a memory is influenced by the environment in which that memory is created.
  • Mood Congruent Memory: Mood plays an important factor in the memories that we retrieve. Stronger emotions=stronger memories.
  • Deja Vu: Cues from current situation trigger retrieval of a similar experience earlier.


Forgetting



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http://isiria.wordpress.com/2008/02/22/memory-not-being-able-to-forget-vs-wanting-to-remember/



Encoding Failure: If information is not properly encoded, it cannot possibly be remembered

Decay Theory: Memory Fades over time

Interference
  • Proactive Intereference: forgetting new information because of old info
  • Retroactive Interference: forgetting old information because of new info

Retrograde Amnesia: loss of past memories
Anterograde Amnesia: Loss of ability to create new memories

An Example of Anterograde Amnesia


Misinformation Effect: incorporating incorrect information into memory.

Source Amnesia: Attributing event to incorrect source.