Paul Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939): Bleuler was a Swiss psychiatrist who invented the term "Schizophrenia" in 1908. He believed that Schizophrenia was not one disease alone, nor did it consist of dementia only. Instead, he believed that there was a group of "schizophrenias". Bleuler added that it was possible to cure Schizophrenia and that it occurred in people of all ages. This expanded Emil Kraepelin's theory of dementia praecox, a form of dementia found mainly in young adults characterized by a rapid decline in cognition. Bleuler stated that the [[#|symptoms of Schizophrenia]] consisted of four A's: loosening of assosciations, disturbances of affectivity, ambivalence, and autism. From 1886-1898, Bleuler directed the Rheinau, a psychiatric clinic on the Rhine River. Bleuler is most widely recognized for his work at the Burgholzli Asylum in Zurich, Switzerland, which he directed from 1898-1927, ten years prior to his death.
http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/165/11/1407
Symptoms: There are both positive and [[#|negative symptoms]] of Schizophrenia. Positive symptoms in Schizophrenia are symptoms that are added to into your life because of Schizophrenia. Negative symptoms are symptoms that are taken away from your life because of Schizophrenia. Positive symptoms include: hallucinations, delusions, racing thoughts, disorganized speech and behavior. Negative symptoms include: lack of emotion and energy, nonexistent social functioning, lack of interest. Essential features of having schizophrenia include having both positive and negative symptoms at the same time. The patient needs to have at least two of the symptoms consistently for a one month period. Schizophrenia is shown to have run in families. The disorder is more common in identical twins and off spring of parents then in a nephew or spouse. One type of schizophrenia is disorganized schizophrenia. This type appears at an earlier age than the other types. A few recognizable symptoms include: impaired communication and infantile behavior such as laughing at a funeral. Although these symptoms are universal, cultures must be taken into effect, as well as age and gender. (DSM-IV)
Delusions - false beliefs strongly held in spite of invalidating evidence, especially as a symptom of mental illness: for example,
  1. Paranoid delusions, or delusions of persecution, for example believing that people are "out to get" you, or the thought that people are doing things when there is no external evidence that such things are taking place.
  2. Delusions of reference - when things in the environment seem to be directly related to you even though they are not. For example it may seem as if people are talking about you or special personal messages are being communicated to you through the TV, radio, or other media.
  3. Somatic Delusions are false beliefs about your body - for example that a terrible physical illness exists or that something foreign is inside or passing through your body.
  4. Delusions of grandeur - for example when you believe that you are very special or have special powers or abilities. An example of a grandiouse delusion is thinking you are a famous rock star.
  5. Hallucinations - Hallucinations can take a number of different forms - they can be:
    1. Visual (seeing things that are not there or that other people cannot see),
    2. Auditory (hearing voices that other people can't hear,
    3. Tactile (feeling things that other people don't feel or something touching your skin that isn't there.)
    4. Olfactory (smelling things that other people cannot smell, or not smelling the same thing that other people do smell)
    5. Gustatory experiences (tasting things that isn't there)
  6. Disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence) - these are also called "word salads". Ongoing disjointed or rambling monologues - in which a person seems to talking to himself/herself or imagined people or voices.
  7. Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior (An abnormal condition variously characterized by stupor/innactivity, mania, and either rigidity or extreme flexibility of the limbs).
  8. "Negative" symptoms of Schizophrenia , these symptoms are the lack of important abilities.
  9. A short summary of a list of negative symptoms are:
    1. Lack of emotion - the inability to enjoy regular activities (visiting with friends, etc.) as much as before
    2. Low energy - the person tends to sit around and sleep much more than normal
    3. Lack of interest in life, low motivation
    4. Affective flattening - a blank, blunted facial expression or less lively facial movements, flat voice (lack of normal intonations and variance) or physical movements.
    5. Alogia (difficulty or inability to speak)
    6. Inappropriate social skills or lack of interest or ability to socialize with other people
    7. Inability to make friends or keep friends, or not caring to have friends
    8. Social isolation - person spends most of the day alone or only with close family


Recent research evidence connects brain abnormalities of schizophrenia to viral infections that have been contracted during prenatal development.


- Positive symptoms: Also known as psychotic symptoms, these can include hallucinations and delusions. Physicians use the word "positive" because they are added traits, or symptoms, that should not be occurring in healthy people.
-Negative symptoms: This doesn't refer to the person's outlook or attitude; it means certain normal characteristics or abilities, such as feeling pleasure, are missing. Such a person may have little interest in life, for instance.
-Cognitive symptoms: These are not as easy to spot because they involve a person's sense of logic and thinking.

-The difference between positive and negative symptoms: The positive symptoms, which may include hallucinations and delusions, add to someones life, or as in something new that they are experiencing. The negative symptoms are things that are taken away from their life such as not being able to form relationships, and unable to keep a job.


http://www.everydayhealth.com/emotional-health/schizophrenia/understanding-schizophrenia.aspx



Diagnosis: It is pretty hard to diagnose a person with schizophrenia, because there are not many tests that can be done to prove the disorder is present. The best way to be diagnosed is by ruling out other disorders, such as bipolar disorder. Or, another way to diagnose somebody with schizophrenia is by the person having extreme signs of it. This includes symptoms such as hostility towards others, depression, and over sleeping.

Men with schizophrenia normally develop it in their mid or early 20's, while women develop the disorder in their late 20's or early 30's. One has a greater risk of developing the disorder (10 times more likely) if one of their parents have it. (DSM-IV)
Although schizophrenia is a psychological disorder, there are some chemical causes to it.
Dopamine - Too much dopamine leads to the development of schizophrenia, and it is also a symptom
Glutamate - Too little glutamate can lead to the disorder, as well as it being a symptom

There are also five different types of schizophrenia: catatonic, disorganized, paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual.

Catatonic:

This includes extremes of behaviors, such as immobility or hyperactivity. There is never an in between.

Symptoms include physical immobility or excessive mobility (catatonia), catalepsy (limbs stay where another individual positions them), extreme resistance to instructions or attempts to be moved, peculiar movements (unusual postures, grimace for long periods, repeating words, obsessively following a routine), and mimicking speech or movement (echolalia and echopraxia). Some individuals with catatonic schizophrenia may have catalepsy, while others will resist others' attempts to move them.

At least two must be present in the patient to be diagnosed with [[#|catatonic schizophrenia]].

Other signs and symptoms of schizophrenia which are some of the other common signs of schizophrenia are delusions, hallucinations, incoherent speech, neglect of personal hygiene, lack of emotions or emotions inappropriate to the situation, angry outbursts, trouble functioning at school or work, social isolation, clumsy and uncoordinated movements.
This is a very rare kind of Schizophrenia.
In very rare and peculiar cases catatonia can be so severe that the patient's body is rendered completely immovable and stiff.
Disorganized:

Symptoms include disorganized thinking (can't form logical or coherent thoughts, jumping from one unrelated idea to another, which can be seen in speech and written communication), grossly disorganized behavior (cannot bathe, dress appropriately, socially unacceptable behaviors), and absent or inappropriate emotional expression (face appears blank, don't make eye contact or display common body language, and range of expression is usually limited or inappropriate to the situation).

All of the following must be prominent in order to be diagnosed with disorganized schizophrenia
disorganized speech (called neologisms), disorganized behavior, and flat(no emotion) or inappropriate emotions.

Paranoid:
donnie darko paranoid schitzophernia example

Symptoms include auditory hallucinations, delusions, anxiety, anger, aloofness, violence, verbal confrontations, patronizing manner, or suicidal thoughts and behavior. Paranoid schizophrenics are affected by positive symptoms, which indicate the presence of unusual thoughts and perceptions that involve a loss of contact with reality. These include delusions and hallucinations.

Paranoid Schizophrenics often feel as though others are constantly talking about them, that they are being watched, or that they are in constant danger of some type. They have trouble separating reality from their own delusions. The delusions are often a misinterpreted reality. For example, if a co-worker leaned over and whispered something to another worker, a paranoid schizophrenic would immediately assume that they are talking about them or plotting against them.

Keep in mind that NONE of the following are prominent: disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, or lack of emotion.

Undifferentiated:

Undifferentiated schizophrenia is a mix of mulitple symptoms that can not be categorized as one particular type of schizophrenia.

Symptoms can include symptoms from Disorganized schizophrenia, Paranoid Schizophrenia, and Catatonic Schizophrenia. Often times, Undifferentiated Schizophrenia comes with disturbing thoughts and behavior.

http://nursingcrib.com/case-study/schizophrenia-case-study/

Residual:

This kind of schizophrenia is rare compared to the other kinds, even though people have been studied with it. People with this type of the disorder have had previous episodes of being schizophrenic, even though at the present time the patient would be completely fine. This type means they have shown previous symptoms, but it is not completely sure that the person actually has the disorder.
(DSM-IV)

Treatment
An antipsychotic medication can take weeks or even months to start working at full strength, so be patient and keep recording things in your journal. Medications are less likely to make any huge, noticeable changes in life; instead they should make things generally "easier." Once you find a medication that seems to work, the voices/hallucinations may gradually fade away and disappear - or they may not. Sometimes these voices quiet down to a point where they are not harmful or debilitating, and many people with schizophrenia make a decision at this point that living with these quieter voices in the background is preferable to going through the pain of more medication and more side-effects.

During treatment, there are two types of antipsychotic drugs that are used to allay both the positive and negative symptoms. To reduce the positive symptoms (e.g. agitation, delusions, hallucinations, etc), Classical antipsychotics, such as Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), are prescribed. While Atypical antipsychotics are prescribed to alleviate the negative symptoms (e.g. apathy, disorganized thoughts, etc). However it is of the utmost importance that you follow the designated dosage, because too much over a long period of time can produce harmful effects.

Medication is the most important part of treatment as it can reduce and sometimes eliminate the psychotic symptoms. Case management is often needed to assist with daily living skills, financial matters, and housing, and therapy can help the individual learn better coping skills and improve social and occupational skills. (DSM-IV)


Disorganized Schizophrenia
    • Disorganized thinking. With disorganized thinking, you can't form logical or coherent thoughts. This disorganization is also noticeable in your speech patterns. You may not be able to stay on track in a conversation, instead jumping from one unrelated idea to another. Your disorganized speaking is so severe that it may appear garbled and unintelligible to others, and you may make up words. These same disorganized patterns are evident in your written communication.
    • Grossly disorganized behavior. The disorganized behavior of this type of schizophrenia is severe and causes significant impairment in your ability to function in regular daily activities. You may not be able to bathe, dress appropriately or prepare meals, for instance. You may have unprovoked agitation or confrontations, wear many layers of clothes on a warm day, appear disheveled or engage in sexual behavior in public.
    • Absent or inappropriate emotional expression. When you lack emotional expression (flat affect), your face appears blank. You don't make eye contact or display common body language. Although you may occasionally show some emotion, your range of expression is usually very limited. Sometimes you may have emotions that are inappropriate to the situation, such as acting silly or laughing loudly during a serious event.
Other signs and symptoms of disorganized schizophrenia
    • Having beliefs not based on reality (delusions)
    • Seeing or hearing things that don't exist (hallucinations), especially voices
    • Grimacing
    • Odd postures
    • Trouble functioning at school or work
    • Social isolation
    • Clumsy, uncoordinated movements


Case Study of Patient with Catatonia and Other Schizophrenic Symptoms

A 31-year-old female was admitted to a general hospital with immobility, waxy flexibility, negativism, mutism, rigidity, and decreased blinking. Her husband had reported that 10 days prior to the admission her behavior changed, she acted with increased suspiciousness, auditory hallucinations, and mystical delusions. She refused to drink and eat and had episodes of impulsivity without provocation. Weight loss was evident. The patient had no prior history of psychiatric disorder. She lived with her husband and three sons.
Laboratory studies were normal range except for a mild anemia with hemoglobin 9.2 g/dl and hematocrit 32.1 %.
A slow intravenous dose of lorazepam 2 mg was initiated. After 20 minutes of lorazepam administration the patient started to give brief delayed responses, with perseveration, movement improvement, exhibiting facial gestures, and giving minimal response to external stimuli.
After the lorazepam test, oral lorazepam 5 mg/day and zolpidem 10 mg/day was started. After 24 hours, there was improvement of catatonic signs, although posturing persisted. Due to the mystical delusions and hallucinations, the patient was also treated with quetiapine 200 mg. Four days after the admission the patient had abdominal distention and steatorrhea. Abdominal ecography was normal. Coprocultive results showed non-pathogenic non-enterohemorragic escherichia coli. A videoendoscopy of the upper digestive tract showed findings associated with a high specificity for celiac disease. The diagnosis and dietary treatment for celiac disease commenced. Along with the improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms, the patient showed an evident decrease of catatonic and psychotic symptoms.
http://www.primarypsychiatry.com/aspx/articledetail.aspx?articleid=2599












http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B9v4FsKXmj8


























http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bo7y4oe9Nqw&feature=related




















































































































































An example of a person with Schizophrenia: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kvdw4b7tC-8















http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UTUMt05_nCI
This video ^ are about a 7 year old female diagnosed with Schizophrenia. Even though Schizophrenia usually affects people in their late teens to early twenties it can affect children too.






















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schizophrenia - Google News






http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H_jYqSA_fJk